Sample Instructions – Blood for Karyotypes & Chromosomes
ALL CONTRIBUTION ARE STRICTLY CONFIDENTIAL – ALL CATS CAN PARTICIPATE!
Cats have 19 chromosome pairs, 18 autosomes and the sex chromosome pair, X and Y. Females are 38, XX and males are 38, XY. The chromosomes of a cat can be easily distinguishable under a microscope due to their various shapes and sizes and banding patterns with chemical stains. A picture of the cats chromosomes is called a “Karyotype”. A karyotypic analysis will determine if a cat has structurally normal chromosomes and/or a normal number of chromosomes. To visualize the chromosomes, nucleated cells, generally white blood cells, must be synchronized so that they freeze during a certain point of cell division, metaphase of mitosis.
Cats that are born with physical abnormalities (congential) may have abnormal chromosomes and/or an abnormal number of chromosomes. Common chromosomal abnormalities include alterations of the sex chromosomes, the X and Y chromosome. Abnormalities in the sex chromosomes often lead to fertility problems and are well documented in other species. Some cats that are tortoiseshell or calico males may have abnormal chromosomes. Most chromosomal abnormalities are sporadic.
Bengal cats are hybrids between domestic cats and Asian Leopoard cats. These species have slightly different chromosomes, thus all F1 Bengals will have a combination of Leopard cat chromosomes and domestic cat chromosomes, which can be identified by a karyotypic analysis. Most fertile Bengal cats should have a karyotype that looks like a domestic cat.
Karyotypes are a “gross” view of the DNA. It can not be used to identify small alterations or mutations that cause inherited diseases. To view the morbid anatomy of the cat chromosomes, click here and/or here.
Instructions for sending samples for a Chromosome analysis:
Fresh blood samples, approximately 3 – 5 mls, must be collected in green top (Lithium Heparin) blood tubes.
Most Veterinary Facilities have sodium heparin tubes. Proper blood tubes can also be requested.
- Samples MUST be sent by overnight courier IMMEDIATELY, thus please arrange for the samples to be collected early in the week.
- When you make the veterinary appointment, please inquire if the sample can be picked-up by an overnight courier from the clinic, otherwise you must be prepared to get the sample to the courier.
- You must package the sample as described below in the “Packing Instructions”. A FEDEX account number can be used for funded projects, thus please contact the lab for the account number
Please send an e-mail to the lab, The Lyons’ Den, or call 01 573 884 2287 to notify the lab that the sample is being shipped. Provide your contact information (phone & email) so that we can notify you of the sample’s arrival. Include pedigree and project information with the sample since many samples come to the lab and are processed by various individuals.
Label tube with the cat’s name. Place the tube in a zip lock baggie. (If the tube breaks, then the sample is contained. Wrap the baggie in several paper towels for padding and insulation. Place the sample in a small box with one frozen ice pack. The sample should not freeze, thus be sure to insulate the tube from the ice pack with several paper towels. Send samples directly to the Lyons laboratory using this Submission Form
Send shipments to:
Leslie A. Lyons, PhD
Department of Veterinary Medicine & Surgery
College of Veterinary Medicine
E109 Vet Med Building, 1600 E. Rollins St.
University of Missouri – Columbia
Columbia, MO 65211
Lab Phone: 01 573 884 2287, Lab e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Re-imbursement for sample collection:
Many projects have special funding thus the cost for the collection of samples for these projects can be re-imbursed. Re-imbursement can be made directly to the owner or the veterinary clinic. The owner will have to provide a proper mailing address, phone number and social security number to be established as a vendor by the university. Re-imbursement should take only a week or so. Re-imbursement can also be made directly to the veterinary clinic if they will accept a payment after the procedure. Invoices should be sent with the samples or by a separate mailing.
All samples are for research purposes only. Any donations of sampling costs and shipment expenses is greatly appreciated!